A Plan for Preparedness and Management of Disasters
As a result of migration to urban areas worldwide by people who want to seek jobs, high buildings have been erected coupled with increase in population, overhead electric cables, and slum areas. A great disaster is awaiting these urban areas due to the increase in the number of industries, oil storage tanks and pipelines including natural calamities such as earthquakes and landslides. Recently, we have seen that in several parts of the world that experienced a lot of disasters, people have varying levels of preparedness and ways of responding to these disasters. Activities and measure are put in place to minimize the effects and impacts of disasters, and this is now called as mitigation. Covering of the physical, economic, and social effects or impacts of disaster to a given population or area is also one of the features that mitigation has. In comparison to places that lack correct preparedness, as shown in history, having adequate preparation can greatly mitigate the effects of these disasters. Depending on the locality and the community concerned, this can involve a lot of aspects and angles. The two categories for these measures are called structural and non-structural.
Another categorization for these preparedness measures of mitigating disasters aside from structural and non-structural, is either active or passive. Active measures specifically include giving incentives for the reduction of disasters such as correct planning of informal living quarters like in slum areas, or giving rewards to building owners for making the units ready for disaster. Since the passive measures rely on laws and controls, the active measures have been noticed to be more effective. This is supported by the fact that city planning rules and codes which are based on the law are not that effective unless they are vigilantly implemented coupled with the strong participation of the building owners. To do the trick, subsidies and lower insurance premiums can be offered for better and safer constructions.
The government and the local authorities must aim on handling disasters when they occur, and to do so, the government and the local authorities must possess a trait of preparedness in order to clear structures. It is important to have simple and easy plans and policies for implementation by the disaster preparedness and management unit. The requirement is to increase the knowledge of the people and organizations and the warning systems should be properly positioned and monitored on a regular basis including a well planned use of land. When planning for a disaster is not properly done or is not considered, chaotic events will occur such as fires and it will make vehicles such as fire trucks and ambulances difficult to reach the victim due to impassable roads. If in the event that the government or the local authorities do not make or create a pre or prior planning, the result would be that disaster response and post disaster management will be one of the most challenging things to do.